"Galactic Coordinates: A.H.O. Planet #3. Point: Sho-Chiku-Bai." "Aho" is a Japanese word meaning "idiot" or "jerk." Sho-Chiku-Bai is written with the kanji for pine, bamboo, and ume (Japanese apricot) trees, and is an old-fashioned way of indicating first, second and third place rankings. It is also the name of a brand of sake.
"Hold it right there!" "Ohikenasutte" is a greeting typically associated with yakuza or gamblers.
"In the northeast quadrant of the universe..." "Ushitora" is an old-fashioned way of saying "northeast," using the characters for cow and tiger as part of an archaic system of directional notation.
"There's no choice... We'll have to make a deal." "Se ni hara wa kaerarenai" (lit. "The back cannot be made into the stomach") is an idiomatic expression, roughly equivalent to "The leopard can't change his spots."
"Hey! How about some of the best tofu in the universe!" Tofu peddlers used to ride around in much the same way, selling their wares, but very few if any still exist in Tokyo. Also, customers would normally only buy three or four blocks at most, as they couldn't eat more in a day. Lupica buying 12 (and later, 17) is thus absurd. In addition, she gives him her own pot to put tofu in, because until recently tofu was only sold fresh, not prepackaged. "Momen" (cotton) and "kinu" (silk) refer to the methods of filtering tofu. Silk-filtered tofu has a finer texture than cotton-filtered.
"Hand that over to me!" "Gyo," the sound which Ataru makes, has a double meaning: written one way, it's an onomatopoeia for surprise. Written another way, it is one way of saying fish. In this way, it goes with the fish who appear in the background.
"A footwarmer in midsummer has an elegance all its own..." Kotatsu (footwarmers) are normally used only in winter.
"So long! I've no more time for the likes of you!" "Engacho" is a child's game, similar to the American game "cooties." The idea is to avoid getting "tainted" (usually by being touched), or if you are, to pass it on. Games usually start when one of a group of children gets tainted because something embarrassing and/or dirty happens.
"Uh no, not 'Wa-water' it's just water..." "Mizu" means water, and "mimizu" means earthworms, in Japanese, but "mi-mizu" is "mizu" stammered out, and ends up sounding like "mimizu," which is the source of Rio's confusion: a more literal translation would be: "Uh, no, not earthworms, water." One of the more untranslatable puns in the series.
"Tonight's 'Stupid TV Til Dawn' is changing its regular schedule..." "Asa made nani-nani TV" (TV Til Dawn about some specific subject) is an occasional feature on Japanese TV, wherein a group of experts on some subject (usually political or economic in nature) will talk until the wee hours.
"No! I don't want to die like this!" "Men be damned!" "Now's my chance to show the results of daily, bloody training!" "Over to you, Ryuunosuke!" "Right! Here I go!" "Attack!" This entire sequence is based on "Attack No. 1," a famous manga/anime series about a high school girls' volleyball team.